SMA Syndrome can be difficult to diagnose. This article will cover the clinical manifestations, the diagnosis, treatment, and recurrence of this condition. So, it doesn’t consider a life-threatening condition and is generally not a cause of concern. But, like any other disorder, it can be deadly if left untreated. So, if you have SMA syndrome, be sure to seek medical attention. When you read this article, you will learn what is sma syndrome?
SMA Syndrome Clinical Manifestations
In addition to its common rheumatological phenotype, SMA syndrome can also manifest as abdominal pain. Although the condition is generally uncommon, it does occur in young children and adolescents. The absence of a clear risk factor for this disorder makes the diagnosis of this condition difficult. A recent case study suggests that SMA syndrome is more common in children and adolescents than previously thought. Therefore, clinical evaluation is the first step in identifying this condition.
Depending on the clinical signs and symptoms, radiographic imaging is often indicated to confirm the diagnosis. Upper gastrointestinal radiography can show an enlarged gastric bubble and prominent distention of the stomach and duodenum. An upper gastrointestinal series with contrast can also show the presence of luminal impingement and the aortomesenteric angle. A CT scan can also help to confirm the diagnosis.
The diagnostic criteria for SMA syndromes depend on the clinical signs and symptoms and radiographic imaging. Barium radiography demonstrates dilatation of the duodenum and an antiperistaltic flow of barium proximal to the obstruction. Duodenal obstruction is an important feature of this syndrome, and imaging of this area with contrast helps determine the cause of proximal duodenal obstruction. An upper gastrointestinal series with contrast enables the physician to determine the exact location of luminal impingement.
Rapid weight loss can trigger the development of SMA syndromes, but it causes other factors. Rapid weight loss and malignancy are two common causes of SMA syndrome. A person can also develop SMA syndrome after undergoing spinal correction surgery. The treatment for SMA syndrome consists of long-term nutritional support and prokinetic agents. Rehabilitative practice is important to reduce the recurrence of symptoms.
SMA syndromes are a disorder of the muscular system of the abdomen characterized by “crampy” pain in the mid-abdominal region. The onset of symptoms varies widely from person to person and may develop slowly over a short period or rapidly. In some cases, the symptoms of SMA syndromes can be severely disabling. The symptoms of SMA syndromes are nonspecific and may be associated with many other disorders.
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome diagnosis is delayed if the symptoms are severe and unrelenting. So, a doctor will typically conduct a CT scan and MRI to rule out other conditions in such a case. Patients may also undergo a plain abdominal x-ray to determine whether there is another underlying condition. These images may show widening of the stomach and bloating typical SMA symptoms.
Recurrence of SMA syndromes can occur in patients with a range of clinical symptoms. It may occur acutely or can develop as an ongoing, recurring condition. Symptoms of SMA syndrome tend to be worse when lying prone or in a supine position. Diagnosis on clinical signs and symptoms but maybe substantiated by radiological findings. An upper GI dye study will reveal a dilated stomach and duodenum, with cut-offs at the second and third parts of the duodenum. Other symptoms may include esophageal reflux, early satiety, and gastric distension.
The diagnosis of SMA syndrome can be difficult and delayed due to the insidious nature of the disease. The diagnosis of SMA syndrome is based on high clinical suspicion and the presence of radiological findings such as dilatation of the duodenum and anti-peristaltic flow of barium. Patients with SMA syndrome may also experience hemodynamic instability. A CT scan with contrast is another common diagnostic test for SMA syndrome.